Abu Nidal organization (ANO)
Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black
September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims
International terrorist organization led by Sabri al-Banna. Split
from PLO in 1974. Made up of various functional committees,
including political, military, and financial.
Has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries, killing or
injuring almost 900 persons. Targets include the United States,
the United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the
PLO, and various Arab countries. Major attacks included the Rome
and Vienna airports in December 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in
Istanbul and the Pan Am flight 73 hijacking in Karachi in
September 1986, and the City of Poros day-excursion ship attack in
Greece in July 1988. Suspected of assassinating PLO deputy chief
Abu Iyad and PLO security chief Abu Hul in Tunis in January 1991.
ANO assassinated a Jordanian diplomat in Lebanon in January 1994
and has been linked to the killing of the PLO representative
there. Has not attacked Western targets since the late 1980s.
A few hundred plus limited
overseas support structure.
Al-Banna relocated to Iraq in December 1998, where the group
maintains a presence. Has an operational presence in Lebanon,
including in several Palestinian refugee camps. Financial problems
and internal disorganization have reduced the group's activities
and capabilities. Authorities shut down the ANO's operations in
Libya and Egypt in 1999. Has demonstrated ability to operate over
wide area, including the Middle East, Asia, and Europe.
Has received considerable support, including safehaven, training,
logistic assistance, and financial aid from Iraq, Libya, and Syria
(until 1987), in addition to close support for selected
Sayyaf Group (ASG)
The ASG is the smallest and most radical of the Islamic separatist
groups operating in the southern Philippines. Some ASG members
have studied or worked in the Middle East and developed ties to
mjuahidin while fighting and training in Afghanistan. The group
split from the Moro National Liberation Front in 1991 under the
leadership of Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani, who was killed in a
clash with Philippine police on 18 December 1998. Press reports
place his younger brother, Khadafi Janjalani, as the nominal
leader of the group, which is composed of several factions.
Engages in bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and extortion to
promote an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the
Sulu Archipelago, areas in the southern Philippines heavily
populated by Muslims. Raided the town of Ipil in Mindanao in April
1995--the group's first large-scale action--and kidnapped more
than 30 foreigners, including a US citizen, in 2000.
Believed to have about 200 core fighters, but more than 2,000
individuals motivated by the prospect of receiving ransom payments
for foreign hostages allegedly joined the group in August.
The ASG primarily operates in the southern Philippines with
members occasionally traveling to Manila, but the group expanded
its operations to Malaysia this year when it abducted foreigners
from two different resorts.
Receives support from Islamic extremists in the Middle East and
South Asia. Is partnered with Jemaah Islamiyah and Al-Qaeda.
Sayyaf (1991-present; Islamic separatists; the
Philippines) Based in the southern islands
of Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao. Branched
off of the Moro National Liberation Front.
Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, part
Egypt's largest militant group, active since the late 1970s;
appears to be loosely organized. Has an external wing with a
worldwide presence. The group issued a cease-fire in March 1999,
but its spiritual leader, Shaykh Umar Abd al-Rahman, incarcerated
in the United States, rescinded his support for the cease-fire in
June 2000. The Gama'a has not conducted an attack inside Egypt
since August 1998. Rifa'i Taha Musa-a hardline former senior
member of the group-signed Usama Bin Ladin's February 1998 fatwa
calling for attacks against US civilians. The IG since has
publicly denied that it supports Bin Ladin and frequently differs
with public statements made by Taha Musa. Taha Musa has in the
last year sought to push the group toward a return to armed
operations, but the group, which still is led by Mustafa Hamza,
has yet to break the unilaterally declared cease-fire. In late
2000, Taha Musa appeared in an undated video with Bin Ladin and
Ayman al-Zawahiri threatening retaliation against the United
States for Abd al-Rahman's continued incarceration. The IG's
primary goal is to overthrow the Egyptian Government and replace
it with an Islamic state, but Taha Musa also may be interested in
attacking US and Israeli interests.
Group specialized in armed attacks against Egyptian security and
other government officials, Coptic Christians, and Egyptian
opponents of Islamic extremism before the cease-fire. From 1993
until the cease-fire, al-Gama'a launched attacks on tourists in
Egypt, most notably the attack in November 1997 at Luxor that
killed 58 foreign tourists. Also claimed responsibility for the
attempt in June 1995 to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni
Mubarak in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Gama'a has never
specifically attacked a US citizen or facility but has threatened
Unknown. At its peak the IG probably commanded several thousand
hard-core members and a like number of sympathizers. The 1998
cease-fire and security crackdowns following the attack in Luxor
in 1997 probably have resulted in a substantial decrease in the
Operates mainly in the Al-Minya, Asyu't, Qina, and Sohaj
Governorates of southern Egypt. Also appears to have support in
Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban locations, particularly among
unemployed graduates and students. Has a worldwide presence,
including Sudan, the United Kingdom, Afghanistan, Austria, and
Unknown. The Egyptian Government believes that Iran, Bin Ladin,
and Afghan militant groups support the organization. Also may
obtain some funding through various Islamic nongovernmental
a.k.a. Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Jihad Group, Islamic Jihad
Egyptian Islamic extremist group active since the late 1970s.
Close partner of Bin Ladin's al-Qaida organization. Suffered
setbacks as a result of numerous arrests of operatives worldwide,
most recently in Lebanon and Yemen. Primary goals are to overthrow
the Egyptian Government and replace it with an Islamic state and
attack US and Israeli interests in Egypt and abroad.
Specializes in armed attacks against high-level Egyptian
Government personnel, including cabinet ministers, and
car-bombings against official US and Egyptian facilities. The
original Jihad was responsible for the assassination in 1981 of
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Claimed responsibility for the
attempted assassinations of Interior Minister Hassan al-Alfi in
August 1993 and Prime Minister Atef Sedky in November 1993. Has
not conducted an attack inside Egypt since 1993 and has never
targeted foreign tourists there. Responsible for Egyptian Embassy
bombing in Islamabad in 1995; in 1998, planned attack against US
Embassy in Albania was thwarted.
Not known but probably has
several hundred hard-core members.
Operates in the Cairo area. Has a network outside Egypt, including
Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sudan, Lebanon, and the United
Not known. The Egyptian Government claims that both Iran and Bin
Ladin support the Jihad. Also may obtain some funding through
various Islamic nongovernmental organizations, cover businesses,
and criminal acts.
Established by Usama Bin Ladin in the late 1980s to bring together
Arabs who fought in Afghanistan against the Soviet invasion.
Helped finance, recruit, transport, and train Sunni Islamic
extremists for the Afghan resistance. Current goal is to establish
a pan-Islamic Caliphate throughout the world by working with
allied Islamic extremist groups to overthrow regimes it deems
"non-Islamic" and expelling Westerners and non-Muslims
from Muslim countries. Issued statement under banner of "the
World Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and Crusaders"
in February 1998, saying it was the duty of all Muslims to kill US
citizens--civilian or military--and their allies everywhere.
Plotted to carry out terrorist operations against US and Israeli
tourists visiting Jordan for millennial celebrations. (Jordanian
authorities thwarted the planned attacks and put 28 suspects on
trial.) Conducted the bombings in August 1998 of the US Embassies
in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, that killed at
least 301 persons and injured more than 5,000 others. Claims to
have shot down US helicopters and killed US servicemen in Somalia
in 1993 and to have conducted three bombings that targeted US
troops in Aden, Yemen, in December 1992. Linked to the following
plans that were not carried out: to assassinate Pope John Paul II
during his visit to Manila in late 1994, simultaneous bombings of
the US and Israeli Embassies in Manila and other Asian capitals in
late 1994, the midair bombing of a dozen US trans-Pacific flights
in 1995, and to kill President Clinton during a visit to the
Philippines in early 1995. Continues to train, finance, and
provide logistic support to terrorist groups in support of these
May have several hundred to several thousand members. Also serves
as a focal point or umbrella organization for a worldwide network
that includes many Sunni Islamic extremist groups such as Egyptian
Islamic Jihad, some members of al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya, the
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and the Harakat ul-Mujahidin.
Al-Qaida has a worldwide reach, has cells in a number of
countries, and is reinforced by its ties to Sunni extremist
networks. Bin Ladin and his key lieutenants reside in Afghanistan,
and the group maintains terrorist training camps there.
Bin Ladin, son of a billionaire Saudi family, is
said to have inherited approximately $300 million that he uses to
finance the group. Al-Qaida also maintains moneymaking front
organizations, solicits donations from like-minded supporters, and
illicitly siphons funds from donations to Muslim charitable
Also known as Qa‘idat al-Jihad, Islamic
Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front
for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, Islamic Salvation
Foundation, and the Osama bin Laden Network.
(December 2001-present; Islamic; Iraq) In
Arabic, "Supporters of Islam." Also
known as "Partisans of Islam or Helpers of Islam."
Islamic Group (GIA)
An Islamic extremist group, the GIA aims to overthrow the secular
Algerian regime and replace it with an Islamic state. The GIA
began its violent activities in 1992 after Algiers voided the
victory of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)--the largest Islamic
opposition party--in the first round of legislative elections in
Frequent attacks against civilians and government workers. Between
1992 and 1998 the GIA conducted a terrorist campaign of civilian
massacres, sometimes wiping out entire villages in its area of
operation. Since announcing its campaign against foreigners living
in Algeria in 1993, the GIA has killed more than 100 expatriate
men and women--mostly Europeans--in the country. The group uses
assassinations and bombings, including car bombs, and it is known
to favor kidnapping victims and slitting their throats. The GIA
hijacked an Air France flight to Algiers in December 1994. In late
1999 several GIA members were convicted by a French court for
conducting a series of bombings in France in 1995.
Salafi Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) splinter faction appears
to have eclipsed the GIA since approximately 1998 and is currently
assessed to be the most effective remaining armed group inside
Algeria. Both the GIA and GSPC leadership continue to proclaim
their rejection of President Bouteflika's amnesty, but in contrast
to the GIA, the GSPC has stated that it limits attacks on
civilians. The GSPC's planned attack against the Paris-Dakar Road
Rally in January 2000 demonstrates, however, that the group has
not entirely renounced attacks against high-profile civilian
Unkown; probably several hundred to several thousand.
(early 1990s-present; Lebanese Sunni Islamic; southern Lebanon)
In Arabic, "the
League of the Followers."
Islamic Jihad -
Egypt (active since the late 1970s)
(Islamic Resistance Movement)
Formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of
the Muslim Brotherhood. Various HAMAS elements have used both
political and violent means, including terrorism, to pursue the
goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of
Israel. Loosely structured, with some elements working
clandestinely and others working openly through mosques and social
service institutions to recruit members, raise money, organize
activities, and distribute propaganda. HAMAS's strength is
concentrated in the Gaza Strip and a few areas of the West Bank.
Also has engaged in peaceful political activity, such as running
candidates in West Bank Chamber of Commerce elections.
HAMAS activists, especially those in the Izz el-Din al-Qassam
Brigades, have conducted many attacks--including large-scale
suicide bombings--against Israeli civilian and military targets.
In the early 1990s, they also targeted suspected Palestinian
collaborators and Fatah rivals. Claimed several attacks during the
unrest in late 2000.
Unknown number of hard-core members; tens of thousands of
supporters and sympathizers.
Primarily the occupied
territories, Israel. In August 1999, Jordanian authorities closed
the group's Political Bureau offices in Amman, arrested its
leaders, and prohibited the group from operating on Jordanian
Receives funding from Palestinian expatriates, Iran, and private
benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab states. Some
fundraising and propaganda activities take place in Western Europe
and North America.
(Party of God)
a.k.a. Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization,
Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the
Liberation of Palestine
Radical Shia group formed
in Lebanon; dedicated to increasing its political power in Lebanon
and opposing Israel and the Middle East peace negotiations.
Strongly anti-West and anti-Israel. Closely allied with, and often
directed by, Iran but may have conducted operations that were not
approved by Tehran.
Known or suspected to have
been involved in numerous anti-US terrorist attacks, including the
suicide truck bombing of the US Embassy and US Marine barracks in
Beirut in October 1983 and the US Embassy annex in Beirut in
September 1984. Elements of the group were responsible for the
kidnapping and detention of US and other Western hostages in
Lebanon. The group also attacked the Israeli Embassy in Argentina
in 1992 and is a suspect in the 1994 bombing of the Israeli
cultural center in Buenos Aires. In fall 2000, it captured three
Israeli soldiers in the Shabaa Farms and kidnapped an Israeli
noncombatant whom it may have lured to Lebanon under false
Several thousand supporters and a few hundred terrrorist
Operates in the Bekaa Valley, the southern suburbs of Beirut, and
southern Lebanon. Has established cells in Europe, Africa, South
America, North America, and Asia.
Receives substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons,
explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from
Iran and Syria.
Formerly known as the Harakat al-Ansar, the HUM is an Islamic
militant group based in Pakistan that operates primarily in
Kashmir. Long-time leader of the group, Fazlur Rehman Khalil, in
mid-February stepped down as HUM emir, turning the reins over to
the popular Kashmiri commander and his second-in-command, Farooq
Kashmiri. Khalil, who has been linked to Bin Ladin and signed his
fatwa in February 1998 calling for attacks on US and Western
interests, assumed the position of HUM Secretary General.
Continued to operate terrorist training camps in eastern
Has conducted a number of operations against Indian troops and
civilian targets in Kashmir. Linked to the Kashmiri militant group
al-Faran that kidnapped five Western tourists in Kashmir in July
1995; one was killed in August 1995 and the other four reportedly
were killed in December of the same year. The new millennium
brought significant developments for Pakistani militant groups,
particularly the HUM. Most of these sprang from the hijacking of
an Indian airliner on 24 December by militants believed to be
associated with the HUM. The hijackers negotiated the release of
Masood Azhar, an important leader in the former Harakat ul-Ansar
imprisoned by the Indians in 1994. Azhar did not, however, return
to the HUM, choosing instead to form the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM), a
rival militant group expressing a more radical line than the HUM.
Has several thousand armed supporters located in Azad Kashmir,
Pakistan, and India's southern Kashmir and Doda regions.
Supporters are mostly Pakistanis and Kashmiris and also include
Afghans and Arab veterans of the Afghan war. Uses light and heavy
machineguns, assault rifles, mortars, explosives, and rockets. HUM
lost some of its membership in defections to the JEM.
Based in Muzaffarabad,
Rawalpindi, and several other towns in Pakistan and Afghanistan,
but members conduct insurgent and terrorist activities primarily
in Kashmir. The HUM trains its militants in Afghanistan and
Collects donations from
Saudi Arabia and other Gulf and Islamic states and from Pakistanis
and Kashmiris. The sources and amount of HUM's military funding
Front for the Liberation of Bahrain -
Movement of Central Asia
- Central Asia
Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)
Coalition of Islamic militants from Uzbekistan and other Central
Asian states opposed to Uzbekistani President Islom Karimov's
secular regime. Goal is the establishment of an Islamic state in
Uzbekistan. The group's propaganda also includes anti-Western and
Believed to be responsible for five car bombs in Tashkent in
February 1999. Took hostages on several occasions in 1999 and
2000, including four US citizens who were mountain climbing in
August 2000, and four Japanese geologists and eight Kyrgyzstani
soldiers in August 1999.
Militants probably number in the thousands.
Militants are based in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Area of
operations includes Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and
Support from other Islamic extremist groups in Central and South
Asia. IMU leadership broadcasts statements over Iranian radio.
(JEM) (Army of Mohammed)
The Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) is an Islamist group based in Pakistan
that has rapidly expanded in size and capability since Maulana
Masood Azhar, a former ultrafundamentalist Harakat ul-Ansar (HUA)
leader, announced its formation in February. The group's aim is to
unite Kashmir with Pakistan. It is politically aligned with the
radical, pro-Taliban, political party, Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam (JUI-F).
The JEM's leader, Masood Azhar, was released from Indian
imprisonment in December 1999 in exchange for 155 hijacked Indian
Airlines hostages in Afghanistan. The 1994 HUA kidnappings of US
and British nationals in New Delhi and the July 1995 HUA/Al Faran
kidnappings of Westerners in Kashmir were two of several previous
HUA efforts to free Azhar. Azhar organized large rallies and
recruitment drives across Pakistan throughout 2000. In July, a JEM
rocket-grenade attack failed to injure the Chief Minister at his
office in Srinagar, India, but wounded four other persons. In
December, JEM militants launched grenade attacks at a bus stop in
Kupwara, India, injuring 24 persons, and at a marketplace in
Chadoura, India, injuring 16 persons. JEM militants also planted
two bombs that killed 21 persons in Qamarwari and Srinagar.
Has several hundred armed supporters located in Azad Kashmir,
Pakistan, and in India's southern Kashmir and Doda regions.
Following Maulana Masood Azhar's release from detention in India,
a reported three quarters of Harakat ul-Mujahedin (HUM) members
defected to the new organization, which has managed to attract a
large number of urban Kashmiri youth. Supporters are mostly
Pakistanis and Kashmiris and also include Afghans and Arab
veterans of the Afghan war. Uses light and heavy machineguns,
assault rifles, mortars, improvised explosive devices, and rocket
Based in Peshawar and Muzaffarabad, but members conduct terrorist
activities primarily in Kashmir. The JEM maintains training camps
Most of the JEM's cadre and material resources have been drawn
from the militant groups Harakat ul-Jihad al-Islami (HUJI) and the
Harakat ul-Mujahedin (HUM). The JEM has close ties to Afghan Arabs
and the Taliban. Usama Bin Ladin is suspected of giving funding to
al-Tawhid wa'al - Jihad
- Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's network, operating in Iraq on U.S. State
Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Islamiyah - Southeast Asia
Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front
- Pakistan and Kashmir
(LT) (Army of the Righteous)
The LT is the armed wing of the Pakistan-based religious
organization, Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad (MDI)--a Sunni anti-US
missionary organization formed in 1989. One of the three largest
and best-trained groups fighting in Kashmir against India, it is
not connected to a political party. The LT leader is MDI chief,
Professor Hafiz Mohammed Saeed.
Has conducted a number of operations against Indian troops and
civilian targets in Kashmir since 1993. The LT is suspected of
eight separate attacks in August that killed nearly 100, mostly
Hindu Indians. LT militants are suspected of kidnapping six
persons in Akhala, India, in November 2000 and killing five of
them. The group also operates a chain of religious schools in the
Has several hundred members in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, and in
India's southern Kashmir and Doda regions. Almost all LT cadres
are foreigners--mostly Pakistanis from seminaries across the
country and Afghan veterans of the Afghan wars. Uses assault
rifles, light and heavy machineguns, mortars, explosives, and
rocket propelled grenades.
Based in Muridke (near Lahore) and Muzaffarabad. The LT trains its
militants in mobile training camps across Pakistan-administered
Kashmir and Afghanistan.
al-Khadamat - Afghanistan
Islamic Combatant Group
- Morocco and Spain
Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
Originated among militant Palestinians in the Gaza Strip during
the 1970s. Committed to the creation of an Islamic Palestinian
state and the destruction of Israel through holy war. Because of
its strong support for Israel, the United States has been
identified as an enemy of the PIJ, but the group has not
specifically conducted attacks against US interests in the past.
In July 2000, however, publicly threatened to attack US interests
if the US Embassy is moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Also
opposes moderate Arab governments that it believes have been
tainted by Western secularism.
Conducted at least three attacks against Israeli interests in late
2000, including one to commemorate the anniversary of former PIJ
leader Fathi Shaqaqi's murder in Malta on 26 October 1995.
Conducted suicide bombings against Israeli targets in the West
Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel.
Primarily Israel and the occupied territories and other parts of
the Middle East, including Jordan and Lebanon. Headquartered in
Receives financial assistance from Iran and limited logistic
assistance from Syria.
Liberation Front (PLF)
Broke away from the PFLP-GC in mid-1970s. Later split again into
pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and pro-Libyan factions. Pro-PLO faction led
by Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas), who became member of PLO Executive
Committee in 1984 but left it in 1991.
The Abu Abbas-led faction is known for aerial attacks against
Israel. Abbas's group also was responsible for the attack in 1985
on the cruise ship Achille Lauro and the murder of US citizen Leon
Klinghoffer. A warrant for Abu Abbas's arrest is outstanding in
PLO faction based in Tunisia until Achille Lauro attack. Now based
Receives support mainly from Iraq. Has received support from Libya
in the past.
Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD)
PAGAD was formed in 1996 as a community anticrime group fighting
drugs and violence in the Cape Flats section of Cape Town but by
early 1998 had also become antigovernment and anti-Western. PAGAD
and its Islamic ally Qibla view the South African Government as a
threat to Islamic values and consequently promote greater
political voice for South African Muslims. The group is led by
Abdus Salaam Ebrahim. PAGAD's G-Force (Gun Force) operates in
small cells and is believed responsible for carrying out acts of
terrorism. PAGAD uses several front names, including Muslims
Against Global Oppression (MAGO) and Muslims Against Illegitimate
Leaders (MAIL), when launching anti-Western protests and
PAGAD is suspected of conducting recurring bouts of urban
terrorism--particularly bomb sprees--in Cape Town since 1998,
including nine bombings in 2000. Bombing targets have included
South African authorities, moderate Muslims, synagogues, gay
nightclubs, tourist attractions, and Western-associated
restaurants. PAGAD is believed to have masterminded the bombing on
25 August 1998 of the Cape Town Planet Hollywood.
Estimated at several hundred members. PAGAD's G-Force probably
contains fewer than 50 members.
Operates mainly in the Cape Town area, South Africa's foremost
Probably has ties to Islamic extremists in the Middle East.
Group for Preaching of Islam and Combat
Land Foundation for Relief and Development
Trading Company (Jemaah